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The Lower School Curriculum

Note: the contents of this page are being constructed and so the information given here is only a guide to the lower school science curriculum. Click on the link for the relevant section.

[Year 7: Living things | Energy | Building blocks | Solutions | Cells and reproduction | electricity | Gases]

[Year 8: Heat | Acids, metals and hydrogen | Senses | The Earth | Forces | Keeping the Body healthy | Electromagnetism]

[Year 9: Space | Healthy living | Materials | Electronics | energy and environment | Effects of forces | Light]

In years 7-9, you will be taught -

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Year 7 Cells and Reproduction

  1. to use a microscope safely and effectively 
  2. to prepare simple specimens on a slide for observation using a microscope 
  3. to make observations using a microscope and to record these as drawings
  4. that plants and animals contain organs
  5. that tissues make up organs
  6. that plants and animals are made up of cells 
  7. that plant and animal cells are similar in a number of respects, but have significant differences 
  8. plant and animal cells are similar in a number of respects
  9. that plant and animal cells have a cell surface membrane which keeps the cell together and controls what enters and leaves
  10. that cells have cytoplasm which occupies most of the cell
  11. that cells have nuclei which control activities of the cell
  12. that there are significant differences between plant and animal cells
  13. that there are different types of cell, adapted for different functions
  14. that cells form tissues, and tissues form organs 
  15. to name some important tissues in plants and humans
  16. to explain the organisation of tissues, using a model
  17. that cells can make new cells by dividing 
  18. that growth occurs when new cells are made and increase in size
  19. that cell division begins with division of the nucleus
  20. that cells have nuclei containing the information that is transferred from one generation to the next 
  21. that in plants, pollen and ovule are specialised cells which enable information to be transferred from one generation to the next 
  22. that at fertilisation, nuclei from pollen and ovule fuse to make a new and unique individual
  23. that animals have different patterns of reproduction and development 
  24. to make notes, summaries, etc to clarify ideas and thinking which can be used later
  25. that animals have different patterns of reproduction and development 
  26. to draw conclusions from patterns in data 
  27. that newborn human babies are more dependent than offspring of some other species
  28. the structure and function of the human male and female reproductive organs
  29. that fertilisation involves the fusion of the nuclei of sperm and egg 
  30. that the fertilised egg divides into 2, 4, 8, etc cells as it passes down the oviduct 
  31. the difference between internal and external fertilisation
  32. that sperm and egg cells are specially adapted for their functions
  33. that male and female nuclei contain the characteristics of male and female parents respectively
  34. that egg cells are released from the ovaries at regular (approximately monthly) intervals 
  35. that menstruation is a monthly cycle which stops during pregnancy 
  36. that the stages in the menstrual cycle are controlled by hormones
  37. that the foetus develops within a membranous bag and is supported and cushioned by amniotic fluid 
  38. that the placenta supplies nutrients and oxygen to the foetus via the umbilical cord, and removes carbon dioxide and other waste products
  39. that harmful substances and viruses can cross the placenta into the foetus and affect development
  40. that uterine muscle contracts during birth, expelling the foetus and placenta through the vagina 
  41. that the baby is nourished by milk from mammary glands, which provides nutrients and protects from infection
  42. that periods of rapid growth occur during the human life cycle
  43. that cell division and increased cell size lead to growth of the body
  44. that changes in hormone concentrations result in the development of secondary sexual characteristics and emotional changes at puberty
  45. that characteristics are passed on by genes, and that some traits are dominant.


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Year 8 Forces

  1. about a range of forces
  2. how to measure forces
  3. that when objects are immersed in water there is an upthrust on them 
  4. that when objects float the upthrust is equal to their weight
  5. that density is mass divided by volume
  6. that when an object is stationary the forces on it are balanced
  7. that the direction of a force can be represented by an arrow
  8. to  draw an appropriate curve/line graph to fit quantitative data, including choosing the scales
  9. to describe and compare trends shown in graphs
  10. to make predictions from a graph
  11. to use a graph to identify anomalous data
  12. that mass is the amount of matter in an object and is measured in kilograms
  13. hat weight is a force and is measured in newtons
  14. that weight is caused by gravity acting on a mass
  15. that friction is a force which opposes motion
  16. how friction between two surfaces can be reduced with a lubricant
  17. about factors affecting frictional forces
  18. to represent quantitative data in a graph
  19. to make predictions from a graph
  20. that frictional forces can be useful
  21. that stopping distances of vehicles relate to frictional forces and speed
  22. about speed and the units in which it is measured
  23. how to interpret distance/time graphs qualitatively
  24. to recognise useful and unhelpful frictional forces
  25. to bring together ideas about forces and motion and to make links between them
  26. that a lever is a simple machine which uses a pivot
  27. about uses of levers
  28. that the turning effect of a lever depends on the force and its distance from the pivot
  29. about examples of levers in the body
  30. how pairs of antagonistic muscles produce turning effects at skeleton joints
  31. that a force can make an object topple over (turn about a pivot)
  32. that the turning effect of a force is called its moment
  33. that when the upward force of air resistance balances the downward force of weight, the speed remains constant
  34. to interpret distance–time graphs and relate them to the situation from which data was obtained


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Year 8 Keeping the body healthy

  1. that foods are a source of raw materials for the body
  2. that foods are the energy resource to maintain the body’s activities (growth, repair and movement)
  3. that foods contain a mix of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, fibre and water
  4. to use chemical tests to identify proteins, carbohydrates and fats
  5. that vitamins and minerals are present in smaller amounts than the other constituents of food
  6. how to search for information in databases or spreadsheets
  7. to frame a question that can be investigated
  8. to decide whether to use 
  9. first-hand or secondary data
  10. to use and interpret 
  11. ICT-generated graphs
  12. that protein is important for growth and repair and that carbohydrates and fats more commonly provide energy
  13. that a healthy diet contains a balance of foodstuffs
  14. to distinguish facts from theories/hypotheses/opinions
  15. to show relationships between ideas, by using links which show purpose and reservations
  16. that the digestive system consists of a tube through which food passes
  17. the types and internal structure of teeth and how to take care of them.
  18. how teeth in herbivores and carnivores are different from teeth in humans
  19. to interpret the relationship between a model gut and the digestive system
  20. to suggest explanations for observations
  21. that foods contain starch, protein and fat, which have molecules that are too large to be absorbed by the body
  22. that sugars, vitamins and minerals are generally smaller and can be absorbed by the body
  23. that large molecules are broken down by enzymes in the gut to form smaller molecules, which pass through the wall of the small intestine
  24. how models can be used to represent and explain complex processes
  25. that food is digested by enzymes in the gut to form smaller molecules
  26. to represent a complex process using diagrams and text
  27. that the products of digestion are transported in the blood to other parts of the body
  28. that some food material cannot be digested and is egested
  29. that the exchanges of substances between cells and the blood occur adjacent to the capillaries
  30. that the blood transports substances to and from the cells of body tissues
  31. why the heart needs to work efficiently
  32. to select relevant information and link to other information from a range of sources
  33. how a theory has been modified when predictions made from it are not supported by evidence
  34. that cells need a good supply of oxygen in order to release energy
  35. that carbon dioxide is produced during aerobic respiration
  36. the components of blood
  37. the function of white blood cells and platelets

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